Mary Shelley created one of the first science fiction stories with her novel Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus.
Science fiction has a wide array of definitions and there is not just one “correct one.” The well-known literary critic, M. H. Abrams describes science fiction as, “…an imagined reality that is radically different in its nature and functioning from the world of our ordinary experience (278)
It more specifically focuses on the materialism of the human race and how human beings will be shaped by this in the future. How advancements in technology could take over humans in the future. Science fiction also typically takes place in the future. Some people view science fiction as being an extension of gothic fiction.
There are many subgenres, some generally recognized and others defined and recognized only by the select few readers. Some subgenres of science fiction include:
- Robot fiction
- Superhero fiction
- Scientific romance
- Apocalyptic science fiction
- Alien conspiracy
- Time travel
- Parallel worlds
- Dystopian fiction
- Speculative fiction
- Gothic science fiction
Frankenstein seems to fit more into the gothic science fiction subgenre because of the influence gothic literature had in the time Shelley wrote it.
Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1999.